The codebook for the bigger study had been based significantly in the factors produced by Kunkel

The codebook for the bigger study had been based significantly in the factors produced by Kunkel

Not totally all product which was taped had been coded. As our focus had been on scripted programming, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and occasions, and paid development, along with all types of commercials along with other promotions ( ag e.g., teasers for system programs). Although music videos had been taped, they certainly were coded and analyzed individually because of their unique faculties and they are perhaps perhaps not reported right here. The analyses offered in this paper, nonetheless, do are the video that is nonmusic from cable music activity channels including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and truth programs. In addition, suggests that had been incomplete simply because they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. are not coded. Finally, episode repeats had been eradicated through the test.

The last test for the 2001 2002 period contains 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the ultimate test for the 2002 2003 period included 1,439 unique program episodes. The sample when it comes to 2nd content analysis ended up being significantly bigger than the very first 12 months’s test once we made a concerted work in 12 months 2 to make sure that we had three episodes of every nonsyndicated show. Despite strict adherence towards the sampling plan, extra taping had been needed whenever, for instance, brand brand brand new programs joined the autumn lineup following the beginning of the year to replace for cancelled programs or as soon as the time and time slot for a set had been changed.


The codebook when it comes to bigger research had been based considerably from the factors manufactured by Kunkel and peers (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted for the Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra things, including those on exact same intercourse behavior that is intimate sexual talk linked to nonheterosexuals. Contrary to Kunkel and peers, whom utilized the scene once the main product of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for intimate content in 2 moment periods of system time. Because scenes differ dramatically in total and, therefore, usually do not offer a consistent product of measure in making evaluations across programs, we utilized a typical coding product according to time. Coding news development in designated time periods has been utilized usually by other scientists conducting analyses that are content various system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers Flanagan, Sommers Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).

For purposes of the content analysis, intercourse ended up being understood to be any depiction of intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any mention sexuality or intercourse. To be conservative and prevent overcoding sexual content, communications about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications associated with love and relationships, that have been not coded. As an example, a declaration such as “I favor my boyfriend” wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as “I made want to my boyfriend” could be coded.

Exact exact Same intercourse behavior that is sexual

Every 2 moment period that were coded as containing a minumum of one form of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, and other intimate behavior 2 ended up being additionally evaluated when it comes to presence of exact exact exact same intercourse sexual behavior. With this item, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted into the period took place between two different people regarding the sex that is same.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2 interval that is minute was coded as containing one or more example of talk through the intimate talk groups utilized in the primary coding task ( e.g., responses about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, speak about sexual activity which have currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) has also been coded for whether some of the intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals. Because of this product, programmers once once once again utilized a yes/no response format to indicate whether some of the intimate talk reflected the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such feedback associated with gays and lesbians, although sometimes these were connected with bisexuals.

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